The Star System and ‘If You Could Only Cook’

cookkitchenThis could be the title of my autobiography, since I do not cook for anyone—not even myself. But, it is really the title of a minor screwball comedy. Released in 1935, just a year after It Happened One Night launched the subgenre dubbed screwball, If You Could Only Cook stars Jean Arthur and Herbert Marshall as the mismatched couple destined to be together. The film airs on TCM this Friday night, November 15, at 4:45am.

To be honest, this is not a long-lost gem that will rival classics like It Happened One Night, Philadelphia Story, Bringing Up Baby, or other films that defined the genre.  I did not feel it was special to recommend it as one of my “Forgotten Films to Remember.” The script lacks the fast-paced dialogue and snappy comebacks associated with screwball, the supporting characters are not zany enough, and the actual screwball situations are few and far between. But, the film provides a good example of how the systems and practices of the Golden Age could elevate the most mediocre of material, and I found myself admiring If You Could Only Cook for that reason.

JOAN WINS OVER HER EMPLOYERS (LEO CARRILLO AND LIONEL STANDER) WITH HER SAUCE.

JOAN WINS OVER HER EMPLOYERS (LEO CARRILLO AND LIONEL STANDER) WITH HER SAUCE.

Herbert Marshall stars as James Buchanan, the wealthy, successful head of an automobile company who is about to wed snooty Evelyn Fletcher, because it is “a logical marriage.” His gnawing ambivalence about his upcoming nuptials is magnified by professional disappointment when his board of directors refuses his designs for next year’s cars. He departs for a short vacation, but ends up on a park bench with unemployed Joan Hawthorne. Jean Arthur costars as Joan Hawthorne, an ordinary gal desperately looking for a job in the want ads. Because it is the Depression, and James is on a park bench in the middle of the day, Joan assumes that he is out of work, too. When she finds an ad for a husband/wife team of butler and cook in a ritzy section of town, she suggests the two of them pretend to be married and apply.  Joan wins over the employer—a bootlegger named Mike Rossini—because she knows the proper way to cook with garlic, and the two get the jobs.

JAMES'S CAR DESIGNS ARE TOO "WILD" FOR HIS BOARD.

JAMES’S CAR DESIGNS ARE TOO “WILD” FOR HIS BOARD.

The screwball situations that spark comedy include Joan and James’s living arrangements. Because Rossini thinks the two are married, they are given quarters together above the garage, which is awkward since they have just met. Later, when Joan discovers James’s true identity, she never wants to see him again, prompting Mr. Rossini to play matchmaker with the help of his tough-talking partner, Flash.

Part of the success of screwball comedies is the way they make use of the star system, which is an approach to Hollywood storytelling that is getting lost over time. Most movie lovers know that Hollywood stars from the Golden Age had images or personas that were consistent from film to film. A star’s image was partly based on fantasy and partly based on the star’s own personality. Viewers of all ages during the Golden Age became familiar with stars’ images relatively quickly because they went to the movies weekly, or even bi-weekly. Stars were the bait to lure audiences to the movies, and they became the primary reason for viewers’ loyal attendance. The star system was much more than celebrity worship; it was a storytelling system used to create characters and drive storylines. Scripts were written with stars’ images in mind; in other words, characters were empty shells until the stars stepped into the roles and flushed them out. Stars did not lose themselves in their characters, which is a trait today’s reviewers consider the hallmark of good acting. Instead, the characters were defined by the images of the stars. Good performances were judged by how well a star played into facets of his or her star image to satisfy the expectations of the fans without embodying the exact character in film after film.

JAMES'S DESIGNS ARE CLOSE TO AN ACTUAL CAR KNOWN AS THE DELAHAYE.

INTERESTINGLY, JAMES’S DESIGNS ARE CLOSE TO AN ACTUAL CAR KNOWN AS THE DELAHAYE.

Just how well that star system worked is revealed when stars managed to create larger-than-life characters in movies with weak, slight scripts. They could turn a mediocre film into an entertaining viewing experience.  Jean Arthur and Herbert Marshall breathe life into Joan Hawthorne and James Buchanan in If You Could Only Cook, though their characters lack back stories and description.  Arthur’s vivaciousness can enliven any character, but recently while watching If You Could Only Cook, I was struck by the casual charisma of Herbert Marshall, a star who seems forgotten compared to such Golden Age stalwarts as Wayne, Grant, Stewart, Mitchum, and Fonda.  Marshall specialized in urbane sophisticates who were mature, cultured, and refined. Superficial bios of Marshall claim that he was “the ideal romantic lead,” but I don’t agree. Stardom aside, Marshall was not a physically attractive man. He had a too-round face, a high forehead with a receding hairline, and a tall but shapeless build. He lost a leg during WWI, and his wooden replacement caused him considerable discomfort, limiting his movements during a performance.  Marshall did make a wonderful romantic lead, however, though it was not contingent on his physical looks. Instead, he exhibited considerable charisma and charm, which were communicated through a finely modulated voice and smooth line delivery.  The character James Buchanan is shown in only two scenes before he sits down next to Joan in the park, but there is no doubt that she is in safe hands despite asking a complete stranger to pretend to be her husband. Any potential threat or risk does not even cross the minds of viewers familiar with Marshall because ungallant behavior does not match his star image as the consummate gentleman.

PERUSING THE WANT ADS FOR A JOB.

PERUSING THE WANT ADS FOR A JOB.

Marshall could play opposite anyone and exhibit chemistry or camaraderie. One of the film’s best scenes finds James taking lessons from his butler, Jennings, on how to be a good servant or valet. A bit actor named Romaine Callender played Jennings, and his exchange with Marshall is humorous because of the physical and verbal interplay between them.  James learns butlering skills from Jennings by repeatedly asking him to come through the door so he can practice taking his coat and hat, while the latter advises James to pretend to “hang onto” his boss’s every word even when it is “drivel.” As with most of his leading ladies, Marshall worked well with spunky Jean Arthur. His civil and suave exterior balanced her bubbly personality, just like his smooth, dulcet tones complemented her raspy voice. He even exhibited charisma opposite costars Leo Carrillo and Lionel Stander, who played the nouveaux riche bootleggers.

I DON'T KNOW IF THIS PUBLICITY PHOTO WAS EVER USED, BUT I FOUND IT CREEPY. ARTHUR IS OVER THE KNEE OF DIRECTOR WM. SEITER.

I DON’T KNOW IF THIS PUBLICITY PHOTO WAS EVER USED, BUT I FOUND IT CREEPY. ARTHUR IS OVER THE KNEE OF DIRECTOR WM. SEITER.

One of the conventions of screwball comedies is the clever use of zany secondary characters. Unfortunately, there are too few in If You Could Only Cook, though Stander is memorable as the henchman Flash. I remember the gravelly voiced Stander as the chauffeur on the television series Hart to Hart during the 1980s. At the time, much was made of Stander’s return to America after several years working as a character actor in Europe. In the 1960s, he had to re-establish his career in Europe after falling victim to the HUAC witch hunts of the 1950s, which resulted in his blacklisting from film, television, and radio. Stander had just begun his Hollywood career when he appeared in If You Could Only Cook, but his voice was already so gruff and croaky that it is immediately recognizable. That voice adds to the humor of a scene near the end when he and another gangster pretend to be a lovey-dovey couple sitting in their honeymoon car in order to avoid detection by the police. Nothing in a classic Hollywood film is ever wasted—not even an opportunity to exploit a character actor’s unique voice.

Movie stars are still a part of the film industry, but their star images are not cultivated and controlled like they were in previous eras. Consequently, they are not used with the same deliberateness and effectiveness as they were in the Golden Age. Those viewers who tend to lump movie stars in the same category as celebrities don’t appreciate the function of stars like audiences of the past, while fewer directors are clever with their casting. The young demographic that Hollywood prizes so much cares more about recognizable characters (that is, comic book and graphic novel characters) than the stars who play them. With the commercial film industry unraveling because of the high costs of its simple-minded blockbusters and franchises, which are long on CGI but short on character and story, modern movies have lost their identity as the art of the people.

Today’s filmmakers and studio heads could learn a lot from If You Could Only Cook.

12 Responses The Star System and ‘If You Could Only Cook’
Posted By Jacqueline T Lynch : November 11, 2013 12:24 pm

“The star system was much more than celebrity worship; it was a storytelling system used to create characters and drive storylines.”

Very interesting and perceptive essay, and so well applicable to this fun movie.

Posted By Doug : November 11, 2013 1:26 pm

Well, Susan, you’ve done it again-piqued my interest in a movie new to me which is now ordered at Amazon. Jean Arthur is wonderful in everything I’ve seen so far, and this sounds like another good one.
I agree-that photo with the spanking is kind of creepy, especially with all the other men raising their hands.
Perhaps you can help me remember another comedy with a similar screw-ball setup. I had it years ago on VHS but can only remember the plot: a son of a rich dairy owner dresses as a milkman and delivers to a home where he mistakes the rich daughter for a maid and they fall in love. Wish I could remember the particulars, as I’d love to see it again.
Lionel Stander does a great comic turn in 1965′s “The Loved One”.
I may watch that again today.
Thank you, Susan, for another delightful ‘lesson’ on Old Hollywood!

Posted By Mike : November 11, 2013 3:41 pm

The Studios not only had a stable of actors but also writers who wrote with the actors in mind. They also had at their beck and call superb charactor actors, and..they didn’t seem to hesitate to use well known actors uncredited as background, or extras as they are thought of. Actors have the ability to make themselves credible not only while speaking but even while moving out of the corner of the screen with only their backside in view. The studios also had the ability to make great use of sound stages. Take a good look at Stagecoach and realize how much of it was not filmed in Monument Valley, but on a lighted set. Alas…gone are the days….

Posted By kingrat : November 11, 2013 9:26 pm

Susan, thank you for another excellent essay. You describe the relationship between star image and storytelling exactly. Hitchcock is a particularly clear example of a director who always takes star persona into account, and to my mind, his later films suffer because he could no longer afford A-List stars. Just imagine FAMILY PLOT with Jack Lemmon and Shirley MacLaine instead of Bruce Dern and Barbara Harris (capable actors but not stars), and the movie is considerably better without one line or camera angle changed.

Without referring to Mark Cousins, you’ve answered some of his complaints about the Hollywood “Christmas bauble” by showing how the star system really worked.

Posted By Susan Doll : November 12, 2013 12:54 am

Doug: The movie is MAID’S NIGHT OUT with Joan Fontaine. I think it was made after Suspicion.

Posted By Susan Doll : November 12, 2013 12:55 am

Kingrat: Thank you for compliment. I had a long, tough day, and your comment made me feel better.

Posted By Doug : November 12, 2013 4:03 am

Thank you, Susan-I’ve got it written down now, and I hope to find it someday.

Posted By missrhea : November 12, 2013 11:01 pm

The problem with that old star system is that even the contract players got somewhat typecast. Robert Young, who was so often cast as the rich playboy/loveable cad, could not break out of that mold even with films like They Won’t Believe Me or Crossfire.

I didn’t recognize this film by its title but halfway through your description I found myself saying, “Oh! I’ve seen that!” I still set the DVR to catch it again. I find the more I see of Herbert Marshall, the more I want to see. Thanks for the pointer to this one.

Posted By B Piper : November 14, 2013 6:22 pm

According to Frank Capra’s autobiography IF YOU COULD ONLY COOK was released in England as a Capra picture in order to boost sales. When Capra found out he sued Columbia, an unpleasantness that dragged on long enough to hurt both the studio and Capra’s own career. It makes me curious to finally see the movie itself.

Posted By Doug : November 14, 2013 8:59 pm

B Piper-I ordered it the other day at Amazon-it is part of a set called:
“Icons of Screwball Comedy, Volume 1 (If You Could Only Cook / Too Many Husbands / My Sister Eileen / She Wouldn’t Say Yes) (2011)”
Isn’t this a wonderful time to be a movie fan?

Posted By robbushblog : November 18, 2013 4:06 pm

I have placed in my Netflix DVD queue.

Posted By swac44 : November 19, 2013 11:19 am

I was lucky enough to see If Only You Could Cook in a theatre setting (well, expert 16mm projection in a hotel ballroom at Syracuse’s Cinefest) with a packed crowd, and the film played wonderfully. This was over a decade ago, and I still remember it, which is saying something considering how many titles get jammed into a typical Cinefest weekend. To this day, I’ll still refer back to Lionel Stander croaking, “There’s GAH-LICK in the SAHCE?” any time I’m confronted with a large dose of that culinary breath-killer.

It’s definitely a low-key charmer I wouldn’t mind experiencing again all these years later.

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