Daliwood

Salvador Dali’s surrealist career was bookended by his experiences in the movies.

I have to couch that statement with the limiter “surrealist career” because Dali was a prolific and prodigious talent whose larger artistic career in toto is almost incomprehensibly vast—he was painting like a pro when he was a small child, and kept at it until 1989.  That’s right, Dali was around to witness the first Internet virus.  Just wrap your head around that.

But… he is known and celebrated primarily as a surrealist, and it is that phase of his career which intersects the world of movies.  And therein lies our tale.

dali13

Surrealism explores the liminal spaces of consciousness with vivid imagery and unexpected juxtapositions.  It was a distinctly political phenomenon—a group of young anarchic thinkers who used Frued’s theories to advance Marx’s.  And here’s the weird part—for a group of unruly pranksters and rebels, they had a peculiar fixation on organization.

Being a surrealist wasn’t just about embracing Surrealist philosophy and painting some Surrealist pictures.  To be a Surrealist you had to join—and like any good club, membership was limited.

In the late 1920s, Dali was an art school exile (kicked out without a degree because he refused to sit for the final exam).  He was interested in modern art, and attracted to the Surrealist movement.  It was then that he met and befriended a like-minded spirit, Luis Bunuel.  Together they made a movie—Un Chien Andalou.

For a 15-minute long silent art film specifically constructed to shock people, it had to be considered a blockbuster hit.  Bunuel was delighted—and surprised—that screenings didn’t provoke any violence.  Based on that film alone, both Bunuel and Dali were welcomed as Surrealists—they were in.

Over the coming decade, Dali became not just a Surrealist, but the Surrealist.  The definite article, you might say.  He was a world-famous celebrity, a brand name.  From his iconic moustache to memorable images like The Persistence of Memory, Dali was the most public embodiment of the avant-garde.

Hollywood came calling.  Or, rather, Dali came calling on Hollywood—offering his services to those artists he perceived as fellow Surrealists, the Marx Brothers.

arts-graphics-2007_1178760a

Calling Giraffes on Horseback Salads an “unmade Marx Brothers film” is lunacy.  There is no chance this thing was ever going to be made.  Whatever affinity Dali saw in the Marxes (apparently he considered Horsefeathers the greatest Surrealist movie ever made), Dali was an avant-garde artist determined to push boundaries, violate taboos, to offend and shock.  Whereas the Marx Brothers were professional, commercial entertainers who employed illogic as part of their act.

The Marxes were bemused by Dali’s script, but at no point did they ever think it had the makings of a movie in it.  (Just imagine the scene depicted below, with “Hooray for Captain Sapulding” playing, actually being projected on a movie screen for paying audiences.  Go on, I dare you)

dali_moma_0708_15

Far more promising were the various Hollywood films that turned to Dali to design their dream sequences.

The first of these was a mooted collaboration between Fritz Lang and Dali.  Lang wanted a showstopper dream sequence to illustrate the horror and guilt of a truly epic bender, and worked with Dali to design such a thing—only for both men to be removed from the production of Moontide.  Lang was replaced as director by Archie Mayo, who opted for a more conservative approach overall.

salvador_dali_on_set_of_spellbound

Alfred Hitchcock had the next bite at the apple, commissioning Dali to design a dream sequence for Hitchcock’s Freudian thriller Spellbound.  And miracle of miracles, this time it actually happened—Dali’s dream sequence was actually filmed and included in the final cut!

Although Spellbound represents the best remembered use of Dali’s imagery in a mainstream Hollywood film, it was not the only instance.  He also contributed a dream sequence to… wait for it… Father of the Bride!  Yup, the 1950 comedy with Spencer Tracy and Elizabeth Taylor.

[wpvideo 8A4QDFtt]

And if finding Salvador Dali’s Surrealist visions in a mainstream Hollywood comedy seems the weirdest juxtaposition of all, you aren’t alone.  The Surrealists had been rankling at Dali’s megalomania for a while now—he had hogged so much of the spotlight for so long, while other artists (founders of the movement, even) struggled in the margins, there was a growing backlash against him from within the avant garde.  The Surrealists accused Dali of selling out, of cheapening his artistic values by working in Hollywood, of putting his own personal fame and fortune ahead of the goal of freaking out the normals.

And so they kicked Dali out.  He was no longer a Surrealist.  Of course, he was still Dali—and that counted for more.  He kept on making extraordinary art for another four decades, so he definitely had the last laugh.  But it was the movies that ended his Surrealist phase.

Our story doesn’t quite end there.  There is an epilogue.

disney

You see, in 1946—the year the Surrealists gathered their mob and called for Dali’s head—he was busy having meetings with Walt Disney.  So, bit of an irony there.  If he wanted to claim he wasn’t selling out to mainstream commercial entertainment, maybe the offices of Walt Disney wasn’t where he should have been hanging out.

Except—Disney didn’t want him to sell out.  Like Fritz Lang and Alfred Hitchcock, Walt Disney admired Salvador Dali exactly as he was.  Dali was an extraordinary visionary, a towering imagination.  If anything, Disney appreciated Dali’s Surrealist credentials better than the Marx Brothers did.

dali460

And Disney wanted Dali to make a movie.  Not just contribute a dream sequence to some other movie, he wanted a proper Dali movie—animated by Disney’s animators to give movement and life to Dali’s most fevered visions.  The Disney company had already bought the rights to music by Mexican musician Armando Dominguez, which would serve as the inspiration for and soundtrack to the cartoon.  Disney artist John Hench started working with Dali to storyboard the project—and Hench marveled at Dali’s inventiveness.  Hench said that in all his life he’d only met one person as inventive and visually oriented as Dali—and that was Walt Disney.

The press was skeptical.  “Disney and Dali join for weird film opus” read one headline.  But Hench’s comment gets at the truth of the matter—Disney and Dali were already playing similar games, and bringing them together wasn’t some publicity gimmick.  Disney was already inclined towards Surrealist imagery in his animated films, and Dali was already inclined towards the world of Hollywood movies.

Dali-Disney

Disney was at the time developing a cycle of “package” films inspired by the model of Fantasia—in which a handful of musically oriented shorts would be collected together under one title and sold as a feature.   (http://moviemorlocks.com/2013/01/26/children-of-fantasia/ )  Dali’s Destino was intended to be released as a key component of one of the Fantasia-like packages.

Hench and Dali shot a 17 second test—and then production stopped abruptly, for reasons not well documented.

[wpvideo BQRVFShC]

Disney and his team remained bullish on Dali, but it may be that Dali’s behind-the-scenes travails with the Surrealists distracted him, or undermined his enthusiasm for a pointedly Surrealist-flavored Disney film.

Eventually, Destino did see the light of day—in 1999, as the Disney Company was preparing Fantasia 2000, Roy Disney revived the moribund Destino concept and handed it off to French animator Dominique Monfréy at Disney’s Paris office to direct. Monfréy incorporated the original 17 second test footage (involving a pair of tortoises) along with newly-animated footage based on Hench and Dali’s storyboards.  The short was completed in 2003, where it made its rounds both as a theatrical accompaniment to other features as well as installations in various art museums.

destino-disney-dali

9 Responses Daliwood
Posted By James M. : August 31, 2013 10:06 am

And let’s not forget Jodorowsky’s effort to cast Dali as the Emporer in his aborted version of Frank Herbert’s Dune, for which Dali demanded an outrageous sum of money and insisted that he be allowed to play the role while sitting on a golden toilet throne.

Posted By Tom S : August 31, 2013 10:17 am

As much as I love a lot of Dali’s work, it became harder to care for the man when I found out he’d embraced the fascist Franco regime- which certainly seems a far greater crime against the Surrealist ethos than any work for Hollywood could be.

Posted By swac44 : August 31, 2013 10:50 am

Another animated footnote to this story is Dali’s influence over at Termite Terrace, the animation studio on the Warner Bros. lot. Bob Clampett’s B&W short Porky in Wackyland was plenty surreal as it was, but a few years later it was repurposed in colour as Dough for the Do-Do and made even more Dali-esque with backdrops that looked as though they were painted by the man himself (it was WB’s Paul Julian who did the art, although for years I thought Dali might have paid Termite Terrace a visit).

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKedQDSvfq8

Posted By BPiper : August 31, 2013 1:08 pm

I’ve always considered Tracy’s nightmare in FATHER OF THE BRIDE one of the great dream scenes in movies. I’m both surprised and gratified to learn of Dali’s participation in it.

Posted By Doug : August 31, 2013 6:00 pm

It might just be me, but I thought that putting Dali’s name in the opening credits of “Spellbound” was a distraction, setting the viewer up for something surreal. I would have only noted his contribution at the end of the movie.
I’m reading a book right now which notes Man Ray and Dali being friends with a man named George Hodel who was not very nice.
side note-David, I picked up the Criterion Blu Ray of “To Be Or Not To Be” today and will be hosting a viewing Monday for some friends. We are all in for a treat.

Posted By jennifromrollamo : September 1, 2013 9:53 am

Oh I love To Be or Not To Be-great film! Lombard was excellent in her part, as was the rest of the cast. You are all in for a treat, as you put it.

Posted By Doug : September 2, 2013 10:00 am

The viewing party moved to last night, and the film was indeed a treat in Blu ray-everyone loved it, and much laughter shook my living room. The Blu ray imaging was perfect, and we’ll possibly be watching “The Shop Around The Corner” soon.

Posted By robbushblog : September 3, 2013 12:16 pm

After hearing about Destino for quite some time, I waited for it to be released as one in the series of the Walt Disney Legacy Collection, as it was announced. That release, and the entire series of the Walt Disney Legacy Collection was canceled and I had to wait a couple more years for it to be released as part of the four disc Blu-ray set of Fantasia/Fantasia 2000. It was well worth the wait. It was totally bizarre.

Posted By Qalice : September 3, 2013 5:55 pm

Swac44, thanks for the video of Porky in Wackyland and Dough for the Do-Do — the latter, especially, was brilliant!

Leave a Reply

Current ye@r *

MovieMorlocks.com is the official blog for TCM. No topic is too obscure or niche to be excluded from our film discussions. And we welcome your comments on our blogs and bloggers.
See more: facebook.com/tcmtv
See more: twitter.com/tcm
3-D  Action Films  Actors  Actors' Endorsements  Actresses  animal stars  Animation  Anime  Anthology Films  Art in Movies  Australian CInema  Autobiography  Avant-Garde  Aviation  Awards  B-movies  Beer in Film  Behind the Scenes  Best of the Year lists  Biography  Biopics  Black Film  Blu-Ray  Books on Film  Boxing films  British Cinema  Canadian Cinema  Character Actors  Chicago Film History  Cinematography  Classic Films  College Life on Film  Comedy  Comic Book Movies  Crime  Czech Film  Dance on Film  Digital Cinema  Directors  Disaster Films  Documentary  Drama  DVD  Early Talkies  Editing  Educational Films  European Influence on American Cinema  Experimental  Exploitation  Fairy Tales on Film  Faith or Christian-based Films  Family Films  Film Composers  Film Criticism  film festivals  Film History in Florida  Film Noir  Film Scholars  Film titles  Filmmaking Techniques  Films About Gambling  Films of the 1960s  Films of the 1980s  Food in Film  Foreign Film  French Film  Gangster films  Genre  Genre spoofs  HD & Blu-Ray  Holiday Movies  Hollywood history  Hollywood lifestyles  Horror  Horror Movies  Icons  independent film  Italian Film  Japanese Film  Korean Film  Literary Adaptations  Martial Arts  Melodramas  Method Acting  Mexican Cinema  Moguls  Monster Movies  Movie Books  Movie Costumes  movie flops  Movie locations  Movie lovers  Movie Reviewers  Movie settings  Movie Stars  Movie titles  Movies about movies  Music in Film  Musicals  Outdoor Cinema  Paranoid Thrillers  Parenting on film  Pirate movies  Polish film industry  political thrillers  Politics in Film  Pornography  Pre-Code  Producers  Race in American Film  Remakes  Revenge  Road Movies  Romance  Romantic Comedies  Satire  Scandals  Science Fiction  Screenwriters  Semi-documentaries  Serials  Short Films  Silent Film  silent films  Social Problem Film  Sports  Sports on Film  Stereotypes  Straight-to-DVD  Studio Politics  Stunts and stuntmen  Suspense thriller  Swashbucklers  TCM Classic Film Festival  TCM Underground  Television  The British in Hollywood  The Germans in Hollywood  The Hungarians in Hollywood  The Irish in Hollywood  Theaters  Thriller  Trains in movies  Underground Cinema  VOD  War film  Westerns  Women in the Film Industry  Women's Weepies